Hindfoot alignment and anatomy are critical determinants of lower extremity biomechanics and human ambulatory function. With increasing annual processes and mid-to-long term results of total ankle arthroplasty (TAA), bigger attention has been applied to adjustment of deformity to improve functional results and period of implantation. Current literature has reported extensively on alignment in the coronal and sagittal planes; however, recent work has begun to evaluate the axial plane alignment in the tibia and foot. As TAA usage develops, axial alignment will likely play an significant role in results.
Joshi Madhuran G